How to write a first-class bibliography for a legal essay

How to write a bibliography to conclude your first-class dissertation

There are three stages for completing an abundant and competent bibliography. First, go into the footnotes on your document, select all, copy and paste to the foot of your article, then separate into different categories. Then, second, go back through the materials which you have read and add them. Finally, third, sort alphabetically using Word or Excel.



A and others v Denmark [1996] ECHR 2
AG of Zambia v Meer Care and Desai [2005] EWHC 2102 (Ch), appeals dismissed [2006] EWCA Civ 390
Airbus Industrie GIE v Patel [1999] 1 AC 119
Airey v Ireland [1979] ECHR 3
Al-Bassam v Al-Bassam [2004] EWCA Civ 857
Amuur v France (1996) 22 E.H.R.R. 533
Andreucci v Italy [1992] ECHR 8
Ashingdane v United Kingdom [1985] ECHR 8
Att. Gen. v Arthur Anderson & Co [1989] ECC 224
Axelsson v. Sweden, no.11960/86, 13 July 1990
Bensaid v United Kingdom (2001) 33 EHRR 10
Berghofer v. ASA SA Case 221/84 [1985] ECR 2699
Berisford Plc v New Hampshire Insurance [1990] 2 QB 631
Bock v. Germany [1989] ECHR 3
Boddaert v Belgium (1993) 16 EHRR 242
Bosphorus Hava Yollari Turizm Ve Ticaret Anonim Sirketi(“Bosphorus Airways“) v Ireland (2006) 42 EHRR 1
Bottazzi v. Italy [1999] ECHR 62
Brazilian Loans (PCIJ Publications, Series A, Nos. 20-21, p.122)
Bristow Heliocopters v Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation [2004] 2 Ll Rep 150
British Airways v Laker Airways [1983] AC 58
British South Africa Co v Companhia de Moçambique [1893] AC 602
Buchholz v Germany [1981] ECHR 2
Carel Johannes Steven Bentinck v Lisa Bentinck [2007] EWCA Civ 175
Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka AS v Nomura International Plc [2003] IL Pr 20
Chellaram v Chellaram [1985] 1 Ch 409
Connelly v RTZ Corpn plc [1998] AC 854
Credit Agricole Indosuez v Unicof Ltd [2004] 1 Lloyd.s Rep 196
Cumming v Scottish Daily Record and Sunday Mail Ltd, The Times June 8, 1995
Darnell v United Kingdom (1993) 18 EHRR 205
Delcourt v Belgium (1979-80) 1 EHRR 355
Derbyshire CC v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] QB 770
Deweer v Belgium (1979-80) 2 EHRR 439
Di Mauro v. Italy ECHR 1999-V
Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain (1992) 14 EHRR 745
Eckle v Germany (1983) 5 EHRR 1
Elderslie Steamship Company v Burrell (1895) 22 R 389
Elefanten Schuh GmbH v Jacqmain (Case 150/80) [1981] ECR 1671
Erich Gasser GmbH v Misat Srl, C-116/02 [2005] QB 1
ERT v DEP C-260/89 [1991] ECR I-2925
F v Switzerland [1987] ECHR 32
Ferrari v Italy [1999] ECHR 64
Foti v Italy (1982) EHRR 313
Fritz and Nana v France, 75 DR 39
Golder v. United Kingdom [1975] ECHR 1
Gorbachev v Russia, No. 3354/02, Judgment of 15 February 2007.
Government of the United States of America v Montgomery (No 2) [2004] UKHL 37
Guincho v Portugal (1984) 7 EHRR 223
H v France (1990) 12 EHRR 74
Hesperides Hotels Ltd v Aegan Turkish Holidays Ltd [1979] AC 508
Hewit’s Trs v Lawson (1891) 18 R 793.
Huseyin Erturk v Turkey [2005] ECHR 630.
Irish Shipping Ltd v Commercial Union [1991] 2 QB 206.
Iveco Fiat v Van Hool Case 313/85 [1986] ECR 3337
Jones v Saudi Arabia [2004] EWCA Civ 1394
JP Morgan Europe Ltd v Primacom [2005] EWHC 508
Katte Klitsche de la Grange v Italy (1994) 19 EHRR 368
Klockner Holdings GmbH v Klockner Beteiligungs GmbH [2005] EWHC 1453
Konamaneni v Rolls-Royce Industrial Power (India) Ltd [2002] 1 WLR 1269
Konig v Federal Republic of Germany (1978) 2 EHRR 170
Krombach v Bamberski Case C-7/98 [2001] QB 709
Kudla v Poland [2000] ECHR 512
Lacey v Cessna Aircraft (1991) 932 F.2d 170
Ledra Fisheries Ltd v Turner [2003] EWHC 1049
Lubbe v Cape Industries Plc [2000] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 383
Malone v United Kingdom (1985) 7 EHRR 1
Malstrom v Sweden (1983) 38 Decisions and Reports 18
Manieri v Italy [1992] ECHR 26
Margareta and Roger Andersson v Sweden (1992) 14 EHRR 615.
Markovic v Italy [2006] ECHR 1141
Maronier v Larmer [2003] QB 620
Matthews v United Kingdom [1999] ECHR 12.
Messier-Dowty v Sabena [2000] 1 WLR 2040
Netherlands 6202/73 1975 1 DR 66
OT Africa Line Ltd v Hijazy (The Kribi) [2001] Lloyd’s Rep 76
Owens Bank Ltd v Bracco [1992] 2 AC 433
Owners of the Atlantic Star v Owners of the Bona Spes (The Atlantic Star and The Bona Spes) [1974] AC 436
Owusu v Jackson and Others C-281/02 [2005] QB 801
Pafitis v Greece (1999) 27 EHRR 566
Pfeiffer and Plankl v Austria (1992) 14 EHRR 692
Philip Morris International Inc v Commission of the European Communities [2003] ECR II-1
Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein v Germany ECHR 2001-VIII.
R (Razgar) v Special Adjudicator [2004] 1 AC 368
R v Jones [2003] 1 AC 1
R. (Alconbury Developments Ltd) v Secretary of State for the Environment [2001] 2 WLR 1389
R. (on the application of Ullah) v Special Adjudicator [2004] UKHL 26
Riccardo Pizzati v Italy [2006] ECHR 275
Robins v United Kingdom (1998) 26 EHRR 527
Salesi v Italy [1993] ECHR 14
Salotti v RUWA Case 23/76 [1976] ECR 1831
Santambrogio v Italy [2004] ECHR 430
Scopelliti v Italy (1993) 17 EHRR 493
Sim v Robinow (1892) 19 R 665
Soc Divagsa v Spain (1993) 74 DR 274.
Soering v United Kingdom (1989) 11 EHRR 439
Spiliada Maritime Corporation v Cansulex Lid [1987] 1 AC 460
Standard Steamship Owners Protection and Indemnity Association v Gann [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 528
Stogmuller v Austria (1979) 2 EHRR 155
Stubbings v United Kingdom [1996] ECHR 44
Sunday Times v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 245
The Al Battani [1993] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 219
The Benarty [1984] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 244
The Fehmarn [1958] 1 WLR 159
The Jalakrishna [1983] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 628
The Lakhta [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 269
The Nile Rhapsody [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 399
The Pioneer Container [1994] 2 AC 324
The Polessk [1996] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 40
The Vishva Ajay [1989] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 558
Toepfer International G.M.B.H. v. Molino Boschi Srl [1996] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 510
Trendex v Credit Suisse [1982] AC 679
Turner v Grovit and Others [2005] 1 AC 101
Union Alimentaria SA v Spain (1990) 12 EHRR 24
Vocaturo v Italy [1991] ECHR 34.
Wemhoff v Germany (1968) 1 EHRR 55
Winterwerp v The Netherlands [1979] ECHR 4
X v France [1992] ECHR 45
Xn Corporation Ltd v Point of Sale Ltd [2001] I.L.Pr. 35
Z and Others v. United Kingdom (2002) 34 EHRR 3
Zimmermann and Steiner v Switzerland [1983] ECHR 9


European Union

EC Treaty
Art 6(2)
Art 307

Council Regulation 44/2001 (Brussels Regulation)
Art 2
Art 4
Art 27
Art 28
Art 30
Art 34(1)
Art 34(2)
Art 35(3)
Art 71


Law no.89 of 24 March 2001 (the “Pinto Act”).

United Kingdom

Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982

Civil Procedure Rules 1998
Part 11
r 3.1(2)(f)

Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998)


Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Brussels Convention)
Art 21
Art 22
Art 57

European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)
Art 5
Art 6
Art 7
Art 13


Anton, A.E., and Beaumont, P., 1995. Anton & Beaumont’s Civil Jurisdiction in Scotland: Brussels and Lugano Conventions. 2nd ed ., Edinburgh: Greens

Bell, A., 2003. Forum Shopping and Venue in Transnational Litigation. Oxford: OUP

Briggs, A., 2002. The Conflict of Laws, Oxford: OUP.

Briggs, A., and Rees, P., 2002. Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments. 3rd ed., London: LLP

Briggs, A., and Rees, P., 2005. Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments. 4rd ed., London: LLP

Clarkson, C.M.V., and Hill, J., 2002. Jaffey on the Conflict of Laws. 2nd ed., Oxford: OUP

Clarkson, C.M.V., and Hill, J., 2006. The Conflict of Laws. New York: OUP

Clayton, R. and Tomlinson, H., 2000. The Law of Human Rights. Oxford: OUP

Collier, J.C., 2001. Conflict of Laws. 3rd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Collins, L., et al (eds), 2006. Dicey Morris and Collins on the Conflict of Laws. 14th ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell

Crawford, E.B., and Carruthers, J.M., 2006. International Private Law in Scotland. 2nd ed, Edinburgh: Greens
Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh. The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press.
Fawcett, J.J., 1995. Declining jurisdiction in private international law: reports to the XIVth congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, Athens, August 1994. Oxford: Clarendon Press

Fawcett, J.J., Harris, J. and Bridge, M., 2005. International Sale of Goods in the Conflict of Laws. Oxford: OUP

Grosz, S., Beatson, J. and Duffy, P., 2000. Human Rights: The 1998 Act and the European Convention,.London: Sweet and Maxwell

Harris, D.J., O’Boyle, M., Warbrick, C., 1995. Law of the European Convention on Human Rights. London: Butterworth

Hill, J., 2005. International Commercial Disputes in English Courts. 3rd ed Portland: Hart Publishing

McClean, D. and Beevers, K., 2005. Morris on the Conflict of Laws. 6th ed., London: Sweet and Maxwell

North, P.M. and Fawcett, J.J., 2004. Cheshire and North’s Private International Law. 13th ed. Oxford: OUP

Ovey, C. and White, R., 2002. The European Convention on Human Rights. New York: OUP

Raitio, J., 2003. The Principle of Legal Certainty in EC Law. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers

Reed, R. and Murdoch, J., 2001. A Guide to Human Rights Law in Scotland. Edinburgh: Butterworths Scotland

Starmer, K., 1999. European Human Rights Law. London: Legal Action Group


Baldwin, J., and Cunnington, R., 2004. “The Crisis in Enforcement of Civil Judgments in England and Wales.” 2004 PL (SUM) 305-328

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Briggs, A., 2005b. “The Death of Harrods: Forum non Conveniens and the European Court.” 121(OCT) L.Q.R. 535-540

Clarke, A., 2007. “The Differing Approach to Commercial Litigation in the European Court of Justice and the Courts of England and Wales” 18 E.B.L.Rev. 101-129

Collins, L., 1995. “The Brussels Convention Within the United Kingdom”, 111 LQR 541

Costa, J-P., 2002, Rivista internazionale dei diritti dell’uomo, 435, cited in Kinsch, P., 2004. “The Impact of Human Rights on the Application of Foreign Law and on the Recognition of Foreign Judgments – A Survey of the Cases Decided by the European Human Rights Institutions,” in Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh, The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp197-228, p228 n100

Crawford, E.B., 2005. “The Uses of Putativity and Negativity in the Conflict of Laws.” 54 ICLQ 829-854

Crifo, C., 2005. “First Steps Towards the Harmonisation of Civil procedure: The Regulation Creating a European Enforcement Order for Uncontested Claims.” C.J.Q. 2005, 24(APR), 200-223

Eardley, A., 2006. “Libel Tourism in England: Now the Welcome is Even Warmer.” 17(1) Ent. L.R. 35-38

Fabri, M., and Langbroek, P.M., 2003. “Preliminary draft report: Delay in Judicial Proceedings: A preliminary Inquiry into the Relation Between the Demands of the Reasonable Time Requirements of Article 6(1) ECHR and Their Consequences for Judges and Judicial Administration in the Civil, Criminal and Administrative Justice Chains”, CEPEJ (2003) 20 Rev

Farran, S., 2007. “Conflicts of Laws in Human Rights: Consequences for Colonies”, (2007) 1 EdinLR 121

Fawcett, J.J., 2007. “The Impact of Article 6(1) of the ECHR on Private International Law.” 56 ICLQ 1-48

Fentiman, R., 2005. “English Domicile and the Staying of Actions” [2005] 64 CLJ 303

Flannery, L., 2004. “The End of Anti-Suit Injunctions?” New Law Journal, 28 May 2004, 798

Franzosi, M., 2002. “Torpedoes are here to stay” [2002] 2 International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law 154

Franzosi, M., 1997. “Worldwide Patent Litigation and the Italian Torpedo” 19 (7) EIPR 382

Green, L., 1956. “Jury Trial and Mr. Justice Black,” 65 Yale LJ 482

Halkerston, G., 2005. “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum.” 155 NLJ 436
Hare, C., “Forum non Conveniens in Europe: Game Over or Time for ‘Reflexion’” JBL 2006, Mar, 157-179

Harris, J., 2001. “The Brussels Regulation.” 20 Civil Justice Quarterly 218

Harris, J., 2005. “Stays of Proceedings and the Brussels Convention.,” 54 ICLQ 933

Hartley, T.C., 1994. “Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention: Agreement and Lis Alibi Pendens.” 19(5) E.L.Rev 549-552

Hartley, T.C., 2001. “International Law and the Law of the European Union – A Reassessment”, 72 BYBIL 1

Hartley, T.C., 2005a. “Choice-of-court agreements, lis pendens, human rights and the realities of international business: reflection on the Gasser case” in Le droit international privé: mélanges en l’honneur de Paul Lagarde, (Dalloz, Paris, 2005), pp383-391

Hartley, T.C., 2005b. “The European Union and the Systematic Dismantling of the Common Law Conflict of Laws”, 54 ICLQ 813

Higgins, R., 2006. “A Babel of Judicial Voices? Ruminations From the Bench.” 55 ICLQ 791-804.

Hogan, G., 1995. “The Brussels Convention, Forum non Conveniens and the Connecting Factors Problem.” 20(5) E.L. Rev. 471-493

Hood, K.J., 2006. “Drawing Inspiration? Reconsidering the Procedural Treatment of Foreign Law.” 2(1) JPrIL 181-193.

Hunt, M., 1998. “The “Horizontal Effect” of the Human Rights Act”. 1998 Public Law 423-443

Hunter-Henin, M., 2006. “Droit des personnes et droits de l’homme: combinaison ou confrontation? (Family Law and Human Rights: Can They Go Along or Do They Exclude Each Other?),” 95(4) Revue critique de droit international privé pp743-775.

Kennett, W., 1998. “Service of Documents in Europe.” 17(JUL) C.J.Q. 284-307

Kennett, W., 2001. “The Brussels I Regulation.” 50 ICLQ 725 -737

Kennett, W., 2001. “The Enforcement Review: A Progress Report.” 20(Jan) CJQ 36-57

Kennett, W., and McEleavy, P., 2002. “(Current Development): Civil and Commercial Litigation” 51 ICLQ 463

Kinsch, P., 2004. “The Impact of Human Rights on the Application of Foreign Law and on the Recognition of Foreign Judgments – A Survey of the Cases Decided by the European Human Rights Institutions,” in Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh, The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp197-228.

Lester, A., and Pannick, D., 2000. “The Impact of the Human Rights Act on Private Law: The Knight’s Move.” 116 LQR 380-385

Loucaides, L.G., 2003. “Questions of a Fair Trial Under the European Convention on Human Rights.” (2003) HRLR 3(1), pp27-51.

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Mance, J., 2004a. “Civil Jurisdiction in Europe – Choice of Court Clauses, Competing Litigation and Anti-Suit Injunctions – Erich Gasser v. Misat and Turner v. Grovit: Address to Second Conference of European Commercial Judges, (“Problems of enforcement of european law”)” Paris – 14th October 2004;, (Accessed 10 March 2007)

Mance, J., 2004b. “Exclusive Jurisdiction Agreements and European Ideals.” 120 LQR 357

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McLachlan, C., 2004. “International Litigation and the Reworking of the Conflict of Laws” 120(OCT) LQR 580-616

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Merrett, L., 2006. “The Enforcement of Jurisdiction Agreements within the Brussels Regime,” 55 ICLQ 315

Muir Watt, H., 2001. “Evidence of an Emergent European Legal Culture: Public Policy Requirements of Procedural Fairness Under the Brussels and Lugano Conventions.” 36 Tex. ILJ, p. 539.

North, P., 2001. “Private International Law: Change or Decay?” 50 ICLQ 477-508

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Peel, E., 2001. “Forum non Conveniens Revisited.” 117(APR) L.Q.R. 187-194

Robertson, D.W., 1987. “Forum Non Conveniens in America and England: ‘A rather fantastic fiction’.” 103 LQR 398

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Rodger, B.J., 2006. “Forum non Conveniens: Post Owusu.” 2(1) JPrIL 71

Schiavetta, S., 2004. “The Relationship Between e-ADR and Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights pursuant to the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights.” 2004 (1) The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT). (Accessed 28 February 2007)

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Slater, A.G., 1988. “Forum Non Conveniens: A View From the Shop Floor.” 104 LQR 554

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Van Hoek: 2001. “Case note on Krombach v Bamberski” (2001) 38 CMLR 1011.

Wade, H.W.R., 2000. “Horizons of Horizontality.” 116 LQR 217-224

Williams, J.M., 2001. “Forum non Conveniens, Lubbe v Cape and Group Josi v Universal General Insurance.” J.P.I. Law 2001, 1, 72-77

Zhenjie, H., 2001. “Forum Non Conveniens: An Unjustified Doctrine.” 48 NILR 143

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